Understanding language, whether it is written, spoken or implied by action, is an essential capability in many analytical systems. Central to understanding language in humans and machines are the areas of computational linguistics and formal semantic representation.
In addition to identifying linguistic patterns and concepts, it is often necessarily to have formal representations of language data for complex reasoning tasks. Concepts like "semantic computing" and "semantic search" refer to computational techniques that use knowledge representation and deep linkage into the referents of information tokens in language (e.g., dictionaries, thesauri and ontologies) and in data resources (e.g., libraries, databases and web-based repositories). Perhaps the best-known sense is in the "semantic web", as described by Berners-Lee, et al. (2001).